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Translation difficulties in Translations

Friel’s Magnum Opus centres on the theme of, its difficulties and inconsistencies. It explores the problems, which arise within language, its relevance its application and the distancing of language, thought and meaning.


Communication would seem at first sight to be straightforward, for Sarah can explain the whereabouts of the missing Hugh by a series of mimes. But Manus requires Sarah to ‘tell me all those secrets that have been in that head of yours’ and’ for this, language is required and when language intervenes then the difficulties arise.


Ironically language seems to be irrelevant to communication. Marie does not understand the sappers but they can help her in the hayfield. Marie and Yolland can ‘wave to each other the fields’ and although says to Yolland, “You’re wasting your time ~ I don’t know a word you’re saying, he is instrumental in scything the grass for Yolland’s convenience. However, the necessity of language as a means to communication is demonstrated by Manus’ ignoring of Sarah when she is unable or unwilling to express her affection for him in words. Similarly, Manus in turn becomes invisible when he is obliged to remain silent during dictation and his client makes disparaging remarks about him as if he were not there.


Communication is complicated when individuals are selective in their choice of vocabulary, taking only that part of he language that gratifies their own desires. Jimmy knows only one English word “bosom”, one that excites his prurient mentality. Marie declares “I want English”, her purpose being to advance her prospects in America and the ‘Liberator’ Daniel O’Connell advocates the use of English for his supporters but ‘Its Irish he’s using when he’s around scrounging votes’. To satisfy one’s own desires would seem to be the sole purpose of language and any deviation from this is incomprehensible. Or as Manus says “I understand the Lanceys perfectly but people like you puzzle me”.

Although ‘uncertainty in meaning is incipient poetry’, the uncertainties of language are a barrier to understanding. ‘Words are signals, counters’ but they mean different things to different people and cultures and they change through the passage of time. Jimmy learns the principles of agriculture from Virgil’s Georgics but the archaic standards of agriculture mean nothing to the contemporary farmer Doalty. Lancey declares  “I do not speak Gaelic, Sir” showing a dual ignorance of the archaic language in which he was addressed and the ancient language that he imagines was spoken. He is incapable of recognising any language beyond his own time as he was born at a time when ‘ancient time was at an end’. Hugh puts it simply in the expression “semper~a silly word”, indicating that language is mutable by the passage of time. Words are merely images of the past embodied in language. It is as if the poles which Doalty moves were words and the gibberish of the sappers the inevitable result.


A problem in communication arises from the way in which language is learned, either by familiarity or by instruction. Maire is familiar with the name and purpose of the theodolite because it is stored in her byre but the etymology and function of the instrument escape the erudite Manus and Jimmy. It appears that the more learned the person, the less capable he is of making himself understood. It is no accident that the adjective describing ‘Prodigy’ is ‘Infant’ a word whose Latin etymology is ‘incapable of speech’. One of the central themes of the play is the giving of instruction and the passing on of information but this is constantly frustrated. Sarah’s newly acquired capacity for articulation evaporates under pressure. Also the message to the island men with which she is entrusted remains undelivered. Lancey’s declaration of intent is frustrated by Owen’s mendacity. Thus ‘more equal taxation’ which is a euphemism for higher taxation becomes in translation ‘taxes are reduced’. Mendacity further frustrates communication in the alcoholic haze created by the poteen of Anna of the Lies. Ironically a form of communication is inspired by misuse of language. Maire’s mispronunciation of ‘maypoll’ induces a modicum of mirth in Yolland which facilitates empathy if not understanding.


A major theme of the play is the impossibility of defining and fixing a name to an object, the constant shift of the signifier from the signified. At first sight, nomination would seem to be a simple exercise, to append a name which has universal significance. In the case of Nora Dan, to write the name is all that is required for as ‘Nora Dan can write her name, Nora Dan’s education is now complete’. The actual name given would seem not to matter. Hugh’s socks are kept in a box marked butter and as Owen says ‘It’s only a name it’s the same me isn’t it?’ echoing Shakespeare’s ‘What’s in a name? What we do call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet.’ The problem arises when one considers the attributes of the signified. ‘How in modesty can I do myself justice?’ says Hugh referring to his autobiographical character reference. Owen says ‘We are trying to denominate..a tiny area of soggy, rocky, sandy ground’ but does the name ‘Trabann’ indicate sogginess, rockiness or sandiness? And does the existence of the signifier imply the tangibility of the signified? It would seem so for ‘we name a thing and bang it leaps into existence’ and if the baby were named ‘Jimmy’ then Jimmy Jack Casey becomes the putative father. Likewise, places can disappear as when Ballybeag is threatened with destruction, the name book remains extant and is given full prominence. The names actually take precedence over the objects for Doalty’s concern over levelling of the parish is directed at the trouble taken over ‘mapping the place’. The disparity between the place name and the place itself is demonstrated in the anecdote of the Tobair Vree well. The place name commemorates a ‘trivial little story nobody in the parish remembers’ about a man long since dead, who drowned in a well which was never there. With the superfluity of misnomers, it is not surprising that Owen is obliged to ask Hugh if he is sure that he can find his way through all those place names.


The response to the problem of the duality of language is the suppression of one in favour of the other. Friel adroitly sets the play when the death sentence has been pronounced on the Irish language, the time of the institution of the English speaking National Schools when the sappers are attempting to translate or transliterate the Irish language and in so doing questions both the justice of allowing a language to die and the validity of keeping it alive. ‘What’s incorrect about the place names we have?’ is answered by ‘the old language is a barrier to modern progress’. The protest at the extinction of Irish is ‘just a gesture to indicate a presence’ but it is ‘ the wrong gesture in the wrong language’. The Irish language is shown beside the classical languages as a ‘quaint archaic tongue’ and appears equally redundant. But the insidious pervasiveness of the English language may be compared with the incipient potato blight which ‘snakes in’ until the people are ‘destroyed altogether’. Hugh prophetically views the effects of the suppression of Irish in reading his own fate. He sees himself as ‘a barbarian because I am not understood’ and indeed is supplanted by a Cork bacon curer might as well ‘teach classics to the crows’.


The underlying assertion by the sappers in performing their duties is that English is the superior language and must overcome its inferior. This proposition is subtly challenged by Friel by placing, Hugh, the Irishman, in a reverse stereotype role pompously and overbearingly belittling Yolland, the Englishman. ‘We tend to overlook your island’ is a phrase which would be expected to fall from the lips of an imperious British officer. English is derided as a language of commerce, ‘a use to which the tongue is particularly suite’ and is a language which ‘makes it sound plebian’. By portraying the fatuity of grading a language quality, Friel adroitly makes the point that the Irish language contains its own inherent qualities which should allow it to maintain its own existence.


The supreme irony of the play is that this language has all but disappeared and the language in which Friel is obliged to express his message is the one which has been dominant. But could it be that the scholars of the Irish hedge school reading the Classics may be symbolic of the English speaking population marvelling over the lost beauties of the Irish language and that English may be the next tongue for whom the bell tolls?!

[ یکشنبه 17 مهر 1390 ] [ 07:26 ب.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]


How many words do you know?

Check the box for each word you know at least one definition for.

(Don't check boxes for words you know you've seen before, but whose meaning you aren't exactly sure of.)

Tip: on Windows computers, you can navigate and select checkboxes with your keyboard using tab and space.

Step 1/3 (measure broad vocab level)

Works for everyone, from small children (with parental help) to college professors!

[ شنبه 22 مرداد 1390 ] [ 05:36 ب.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
In the past, the number of online dating sites was small and they all asked for money from their users. Reached as much as $ 50 as payment for your membership, plus having to fill a large questionnaire. The Internet has changed, however, and now there are dozens of sites free online dating is not asking any money. Here are some suggestions on what to look for when finding the best dating services free online: Privacy "The lack of privacy" free and not have to go hand in hand. You can have your privacy without paying anything. You need to know if this free service sells the private information of its users.

 Most do not sell it, but there are some that do this. You need to be sure it will not sell your information.

 Options Look around the sites and see what kind of options are offered, and if you can find your soul mate for their use. What you need to know is whether they can provide the details you need 

to find a partner. For example, having the option to say in your profile what you're looking for is a long term partner. Some will have these options and others do not. Which must decide all the options you need.

 If you want someone who drinks too much or not a smoker, these are options that should be able to choose from. Filtering In any service you choose, it should be an option to block someone from contacting you again in the future or to filter from the beginning. One idea would be to filter people who are too young or old for you. If you do not want to talk to someone who should not have to. The general experience that the site offers filtering must be good and improve the general feeling.

 Chat At some point, a user only wants to chat with other people, not just look for Ms. or Mr. Right, so the site must also have forums and the option of using chat rooms. Either of the two options, or only one of them will suffice to provide a pleasant experience talking with other people. sugar daddy dating is one of the best online dating services that you can find, so what do you think to give sugar daddy a chance? and start seeking sugar daddy Now Nice day

[ چهارشنبه 15 تیر 1390 ] [ 04:55 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
Online education is a very popular area of interest these days. There are several reason why this subject has drawn so much attention but for good reason. As technology advances students are subjected to more effective means of obtaining education and retaining the information they learn. Online education has brought success to many people from all walks of life the only prerequisites is a computer, internet access, and a willingness to learn. College education is a field which includes financial aid, accelerated courses, online assignments and test, online books, daily requirements, and most of all graduation.

 Financial aid Getting money to pay for Online college is said to be one of the most frightening things a student experiences while contemplating college. Most students who attend college are using financial aid which is provided by the federal government yet there is a small percentage of students who pay out of pocket and an even smaller percentage students who pay for college expenses by grants and scholarships.

 All regionally accredited schools are approved to offer their students financial aid to pay for classes and resources like books and dorm expenses. A list of schools who accept financial aid as payment are listed on the department of education website. Financial aid is a combination of three resources Pell Grant, Student Loans, and Scholarships. When a student fills out a financial aid packet from fafsa website the application will be review to determine if the student is eligible for Pell Grant, Student Loans, and Scholarships; the student only needs to completely fill out and submit the form. After the student submits the online financial aid application the student will receive an email stating the student's application status; when the student is approved the student will receive a letter of approval from the department of education

[ سه شنبه 14 تیر 1390 ] [ 05:52 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]

Tips for getting the most from an English Dictionary.

Invest in a good English dictionary. It's one of the best things that you can do to improve your English.

Learn the phonetic alphabet. At the beginning of most good English dictionaries, you'll find the phonetic table, which tells you how to pronounce the phonetic symbols given with each word. If you learn these symbols, you'll find it much easier to pronounce new words.

Learn how to use the stress marks. Most English dictionaries show where the stress of a word is by using the mark '. This means that the following syllable is stressed:

pho- 'to-gra-pher

The best way to improve your pronunciation is with correct word stress, as making mistakes with stress causes more misunderstandings than mispronouncing the word.

Make sure you know the grammar of the new word. If it is a verb, does it need a preposition, such as 'in' or 'of'? Does the verb have an irregular ending?

Look at the definition of the new word. If you don't understand it, try a simpler dictionary. Good dictionaries give definitions that are simpler than the word they describe.

Look at the example sentence given. It should show the new word in a way that explains its meaning.

Other things to think about

Is the new word typically spoken or written? Formal or informal? American or British? Which other words can you use it with?

This information will help you to start practising the new word, confident that you are using it in the right situation.

Don't try to learn every new word - concentrate on the words or phrases you think you will need to know.

Many English words have more than one meaning. Some dictionaries put the most common meaning first in the list of definitions.

Pictures of words, or word groups, can help you to remember more easily.

Questions about dictionaries

1. Should I use a normal English dictionary, or a bilingual one?

It's generally better to use a normal English (monolingual) dictionary. There are three main advantages of these dictionaries.

* They give you practice in understanding English.

* As the definitions and examples are in English, you can see immediately how a word is used.

* Because many English words won't translate directly into your language, you have to be careful with bilingual dictionaries when you write down the meaning of the word.

2. Why can't I understand the definitions? Perhaps your dictionary is too complicated. Try using one that's especially designed for learners of English at your level. It's annoying if you can't understand the definition or example sentence of a new word. It's much better to start off with a simpler dictionary, such as Longman Active Study Dictionary, then move on to a more complex one later.

3. How many words should there be?No dictionary contains all the words and expressions in English (currently estimated to be around 1 million). The average person knows at least 60,000 words, so a useful dictionary will have around 80,000 words and expressions.

4. Why can't I find the words in my dictionary? English is changing – every year there are new words and expressions. Make sure your dictionary is fairly new, as any dictionary older than a few years may be out-of-date. If you're looking for a special or technical word, it might be a good idea to invest in a specialised dictionary.

[ دوشنبه 13 تیر 1390 ] [ 05:36 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
[ یکشنبه 12 تیر 1390 ] [ 05:35 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
English Idioms
ادامه مطلب

[ شنبه 11 تیر 1390 ] [ 05:30 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
 Listening Success 3 with Dictation
ادامه مطلب

[ جمعه 10 تیر 1390 ] [ 03:27 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

You have just spent a weekend at a friend’s house. When you returned home, you discovered you have left a coat containing some belongings in his house.

Write a letter to your friend telling him that you left the coat. Tell him what the coat looks like, where you think you left it and what was inside it. Make some suggestions about how to get it back.

You should write at least 150 words.

You do NOT need to write your own address. Begin your letter as follows:

Dear John,

model answer:


I‛m back at home now after that great weekend at your house. Thanks very much for putting me up. I hope you‛ll be able to come and stay with me some time soon as well.

Unfortunately I left my new coat at your house. Do you remember the dark brown one that I wore when we went walking on Saturday afternoon? It is a New Look coat that goes down to mid-thigh level. It has a black collar, dark brown buttons and large pockets on both sides. I think I left it on the hooks behind your front door. Do you remember we hung up our coats there when we got back from our walk?

It‛s quite important for me as I have my wallet in the inside breast pocket and my diary in the right outside pocket. I have a friend who is driving through your town on Thursday and he will be quite near your office. Could he please collect it from there? I have given him your office phone number and he will call you on Thursday morning. Give me a call if this is not possible.

Anyway, thanks again for a great weekend and I hope to see you soon.

[ پنجشنبه 9 تیر 1390 ] [ 02:25 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because he or she always has friends visiting. They have parties in the room and sometimes borrow your things without asking you.

Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college and ask for a new room next term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reasons.

You should write at least 150 words.

You do NOT need to write your own address. Begin your letter as follows:

Dear Sir/Madam,

model answer 1:

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with my room-mate. As your know we share one room, I can not study in the room at all any more if I still stay there.

She always has friend visiting and has parties in the room. They make lots of noise and switch on the radio very loudly, for me this environment is very difficult to study and I need a quiet room. Even borrows my things without asking, it is very impolite.

I request you can give me a new room next term because I have been asked her has parties in other place many times they still have parties in the room. I really can not stay in the same room with her.

I would be grateful if you could change me a single room.


The answer is below the word limit and there is some repetition of the task rubric. (Length is a common problem in General Training scripts). Answers that are short lose marks because there is insufficient material in the answer for the examiner to give credit for accuracy and coherence. Despite these problems, the introduction to the letter is appropriate and the purpose of the writer is clear. The points are not always linked together well and punctuation is sometimes faulty. The sentences are kept quite simple and mistakes occur as soon as more complex structures are attempted.

model answer 2:

Accommodation Officer
13, Kings Road

Dear Sir, Dear Lacking

I am writing you to express my dissatisfaction with my room-mate and request for another accommodation next term.

My main problem is that I cannot study in my room because my room-mate always has friends visiting. He also has parties, which usually ends early in the morning, several times a week. Furthermore he often borrows my things without asking me.

I cannot accept this situation any layer. Especially because I have very important exams next term and I really must study hard. This is why I would be very grateful if I could have another room next term. It would be most convenient for me not having to share my room with somebody else.

I am looking forward to hear from you soon.

Yours faithfully,


The answer is also short. Although ideas are often provided in the task rubric, candidates are at liberty to include some of their own ideas in their answers. In this case, the candidate has attempted to incorporate some original material. The answer reads quite fluently, is well organised and there is good use of conjunctions to link points. There are some grammatical errors but these do not affect the reader greatly and there is evidence of some more complex sentence structures.

[ چهارشنبه 8 تیر 1390 ] [ 11:23 ق.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]

Computer Culture



Unmasking Virus Writer and Hackers

When we think of people who make our lives miserable by hacking into computers or spreading  malicious viruses,most of us imagine an unpopular teenage boy,brilliant but geeky,ventinghis frustrations from the safety of suburban bedroom

Actually,these stereotypes are just that stereotypes- according to Sarah Gordon,n expert in computer viruses and security technology,and a Senior Research Fellow with Symantec Security Response.Since 1992,Gordon has studied the psychology of virus writers."A hacker or a irus writer is just as likelyto be the guy next door to you,"she says,"or the kid at the check out line bagging your groceries.Your average hacker is not necessarilysome  Goth typedressed entirely in black and sporting a nose ring:she may very well be a fifthy-year-old female."

The virus writer s Gordon has become to know have varied backgrounds;while predominately male,some are female. Some are solidly academic, while others areathletic. Many have friendship with members of the opposite sex, good relationships with their parents and families; most are popular with their peers. They dont spend all their time in the basement. One virus writer olunteers in his local library, working with eldery people. One of them is a poet and a musician, another is an electrical engineer, and others work for a university quantom physics department. You wouldnt pick them out of a lineup as being the perpetrator

[ جمعه 20 خرداد 1390 ] [ 06:40 ب.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]

                                         IN THE NAME OF GOD 

salam be dostaye khobam dar in post yek maghaleh dar ghalebe pdf  ba mozoye pezeshki baratoon amade kardam ke omidvaram danload konin.


[ شنبه 7 خرداد 1390 ] [ 07:36 ب.ظ ] [ razieh khoshzamir ]
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